Publications - Theses

High-resolution spectroscopy of neutral Yb atoms in a solid Ne matrix
R. Lambo, C.-Y. Xu, S.T. Pratt, H. Xu, J.C. Zappala, K.G. Bailey, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, T.P. O'Connor, B.B. Kamorzin, D.S. Bezrukov, Y.-Q. Xie, A.A. Buchachenko, and J.T. Singh
Physical Review A 104, 062809 (2021)

Stellar s-process neutron capture cross sections on 78,80,84,86Kr determined via activation, atom trap trace analysis, and decay counting
M. Tessler, J. Zappala, S. Cristallo, L. Roberti, M. Paul, S. Halfon, T. Heftrich, W. Jiang, D. Kijel, A. Kreisel, M. Limongi, Z.-T. Lu, P. Müller, R. Purtschert, R. Reifarth, A. Shor, D. Veltum, D. Vescovi, M. Weigand, L. Weissman
Physical Review C 104, 015806 (2021)

Surface processing and discharge-conditioning of high voltage electrodes for the Ra EDM experiment
Roy A.Ready, Gordon Arrowsmith-Kron, Kevin G. Bailey, Dominic Battaglia, Michael Bishof, Daniel Coulter, Matthew R. Dietrich, Ruoyu Fang, Brian Hanley, Jake Huneau, Sean Kennedy, Peyton Lalain, Benjamin Loseth, Kellen McGee, Peter Mueller, Thomas P. O’Connor, Jordan O’Kronley, Adam Powers, Tenzin Rabga, Andrew Sanchez, Eli Schalk, Dale Waldo, Jacob Wescott, Jaideep T. Singh
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 1014, 165738 (2021)

Origin of water Masses in Floridian Aquifer System revealed by 81Kr
Reika Yokochi, Jake Z. Zappala, Roland Purtschert, Peter Mueller
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 569, 117060 (2021)

Groundwater residence time estimates obscured by anthropogenic carbonate
Alan M. Seltzer, David V. Bekaert, Peter H. Barry, Kathryn E. Durkin, Emily K. Mace, Craig E. Aalseth, Jake C. Zappala, Peter Mueller, Bryant Jurgens, Justin T. Kulongosk
Science Advances 7 (17), eabf3503 (2021)

Underground production of 81Kr detected in subsurface fluids
R. Purtschert, R. Yokochi, W. Jiang, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, J. Zappala, E. Van Heerden, E. Cason, M.Lau, T. L.Kieft, C. Gerber, M.S. Brennwald, T.C.Onstott
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 295, 65 (2021)

Controls on the 36Cl/Cl ratio of paleo-groundwater in arid environments: New evidence from 81Kr/Kr data
Roi Ram, Roland Purtschert, Eilon M. Adar, Michael Bishof, Wei Jiang, Zheng-Tian Lu, Peter Mueller, Adrien Sy, Christof Vockenhuber, Yoseph Yechieli, Reika Yokochi, Jake C. Zappala, Avihu Burg
Science of The Total Environment 762, 144106 (2021)

Spectroscopic study and lifetime measurement of the 6d7p 3F2o state of radium
D.W. Booth, T. Rabga, R. Ready, K.G. Bailey, M. Bishof, M.R. Dietrich, J.P. Greene, P. Mueller, T.P. O'Connor, J.T. Singh
Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 172, 105967 (2020)

Enhanced detection limits for radiokrypton analysis
Jake C. Zappala, Derek McLain, Peter Mueller, Jennifer Steeb
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 326, 1075 (2020)

Identifying recharge processes into a vast “fossil” aquifer based on dynamic groundwater 81Kr age evolution
R. Ram, A. Burg, J.C. Zappala, R. Yokochi, Y. Yechieli, R. Purtschert, W. Jiang, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, R. Bernier, E.M. Adar
Journal of Hydrology 587, 124946 (2020)

Atmospheric 81Kr as an integrator of cosmic-ray flux on the hundred-thousand-year timescale
J.C. Zappala, D. Baggenstos, Ch. Gerber, W. Jiang, B.M. Kennedy, Z.-T. Lu, J. Masarik, P. Mueller, R. Purtschert, A. Visser
Geophysical Research Letters 47, e2019GL086381 (2020)

Krypton-81 dating of the deep Continental Intercalaire aquifer with implications for chlorine-36 dating
T. Matsumoto, K.Zouari, R. Trabelsi, D. Hillegonds, W. Jiang, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, J.C. Zappala, L.J. Araguás Araguás, N. Romeo, A. Agoun
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 535, 116120 (2020)

Recent seawater intrusion into deep aquifer determined by the radioactivenoble-gas isotopes 81Kr and 39Ar
Y. Yechieli, R. Yokochi, M. Zilberbrand, Z.-T. Lu, R. Purtschert, J. Sueltenfuss, W. Jiang, J. Zappala, P. Mueller, R. Bernier, N. Avrahamov, E. Adar, F. Talhami, Y. Livshitz, A. Burg
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 507, 21 (2019)

Radiokrypton unveils dual moisture sources of a deep desert aquifer
R. Yokochi, R. Ram, J. Zappala, W. Jiang, E. Adar, R. Bernier, A. Burg, U. Dayan, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, R. Purtschert, Y. Yechieli
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116, 16222 (2019)

Field Degassing as a New Sampling Method for 14C Analyses in Old Groundwater
R. Yokochi, R. Bernier, R. Purtschert, J.C. Zappala, Y. Yechieli, E. Adar, W. Jiang, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, G. Olack, R. Ram
Radiocarbon 60, 349 (2018)

The circulation of the Dead Sea brine in the regional aquifer
N. Weber, Y. Yechieli, M. Stein, R. Yokochi, I. Gavrieli, J. Zappala, P. Mueller, Boaz Lazara
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 493, 242 (2018)

Rapid processing of 85Kr/Kr ratios using Atom Trap Trace Analysis
J.C. Zappala, K. Bailey, P. Mueller, T.P. O'Connor, R. Purtschert
Water Resources Research 53, 2553 (2017), DOI: 10.1002/2016WR020082

Setting a Limit on Anthropogenic Sources of Atmospheric 81Kr through Atom Trap Trace Analysis
J. C. Zappala, K. Bailey, W. Jiang, B. Micklich, P. Mueller, T. P. O'Connor, R. Purtschert
Chemical Geology 453, 66 (2017), DOI: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2017.02.007, arXiv:1702.01652

Using 81Kr and Noble Gases to Characterize and Date Groundwater and Brines in the Baltic Artesian Basin on the One-Million-Year Timescale
Ch. Gerber, R. Vaikmäe, W. Aeschbach, A. Babre, W. Jiang, M. Leuenberger, Z.-T. Lu, R. Mokrik, P. Müller, V. Raidla, T. Saks, N. H. Waber, Th. Weissbach, J. C. Zappala, R. Purtschert
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 205, 187 (2017), DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2017.01.033, arXiv: 1701.06013

Improved limit on the 225Ra electric dipole moment PDF
M. Bishof, R.H. Parker, K.G. Bailey, J. P. Greene, R.J. Holt, M.R. Kalita, W. Korsch, N.D. Lemke, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, T. P. O'Connor, J.T. Singh, and M.R. Dietrich
Physical Review C, 94, 025501 (2016), DOI:10.1103/PhysRevC.94.025501, arXiv:1606.04931

Physics Synopsis Suggested ReadingFirst measurement of the atomic electric dipole moment of 225Ra PDF
R. H. Parker, M. R. Dietrich, M.R. Kalita, N.D. Lemke, K. Bailey, M.N. Bishof, J. P. Greene, R. J. Holt, W. Korsch, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, T. P. O'Connor, J.T. Singh
Physical Review Letters, 114, 233002 (2015), DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.233002, arXiv:1504.07477
(see accompanying Physics Synopsis)

Continental degassing of 4He by surficial discharge of deep groundwater
P.K. Aggarwal, T. Matsumoto, N.C. Sturchio, H.K. Chang, D. Gastmans, L.J. Araguas-Araguas, W. Jiang, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, R. Yokochi, R. Purtschert and T. Torgersen
Nature Geoscience, 8, 35 (2015), DOI:10.1038/ngeo2302

Measurement of the Hyperfine Quenching Rate of the Clock Transition in 171Yb
C.-Y. Xu, J. Singh, J. C. Zappala, K. G. Bailey, M. R. Dietrich, J. P. Greene, W. Jiang, N. D. Lemke, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, T. P. O'Connor
Physical Review Letters 113, 033003 (2014), DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.033003

Efficient generation of optical sidebands at GHz with a high-power tapered amplifier
J. C. Zappala, K. Bailey, Z.-T. Lu, T. P. O’Connor, and W. Jiang
Review of Scientific Instruments, 85, 046104 (2014), DOI: 10.1063/1.4870412

Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica
C. Buizert, D. Baggenstos, W. Jiang, R. Purtschert, V.V. Petrenko, Z.-T. Lu, P. Müller, T. Kuhl, J. Lee, J.P. Severinghaus, and E.J. Brook
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 6876 (2014) , DOI:10.1073/pnas.132032911
(See accompanying Commentary : Aeschbach-Hertig, W. ibid)

Tracer Applications of Noble Gas Radionuclides in the Geosciences
Z.-T. Lu, P. Schlosser, W.M. Smethie Jr., N.C. Sturchio, T.P. Fischer, B.M. Kennedy, R. Purtschert, J.P. Severinghaus, D.K. Solomon, T. Tanhua, R. Yokochi
Earth-Science Reviews, 138, 196 (2014) DOI:10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.09.002

Krypton-81 in Groundwater of the Culebra Dolomite Near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, New Mexico
N.C. Sturchio, K.L. Kuhlman, R. Yokochi, P.C. Probst, W. Jiang, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, G.-M. Yang
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 160, 12 (2014) , DOI:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2014.02.002

Ion current as a precise measure of the loading rate of a magneto-optical trap
W. Jiang, K. Bailey, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, T. P. O’Connor, and R. Purtschert
Optics Letters 39, 409 (2014) DOI:10.1364/OL.39.000409

Colloquium: Laser probing of neutron-rich nuclei in light atoms Abstract / PDF
Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, G. W. F. Drake, W. Nörtershäuser, Steven C. Pieper, and Z.-C. Yan
Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 1383 (2013)

What trapped atoms reveal about global groundwater PDF
Zheng-Tian Lu
Physics Today 66 (3), 75 (2013) DOI:10.1063/PT.3.1926

Noble gas radionucleides in Yellowstone geothermal gas emissions: A reconnaissance
R. Yokochi, N.C. Sturchio, R. Purtschert, W. Jiang, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, G.-M. Yang, f, B.M. Kennedy, Y. Kharaka
Chemical Geology 339, 43 (2013) DOI:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2012.09.037

Efficient, tightly-confined trapping of 226Ra (PDF)
R.H. Parker, M.R. Dietrich, K. Bailey, J.P. Greene, R.J. Holt, M.R. Kalita, W. Korsch, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, T.P. O'Connor, J. Singh, I.A. Sulai, W.L. Trimble
Physical Review C 86, 065503 (2012) DOI:10.1103/PhysRevC.86.065503

An Atom Counter for Measuring 81Kr and 85Kr in Environmental Samples
W. Jiang, K. Bailey, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, T.P. O'Connor, C.-F. Cheng, S.-M. Hu, R. Purtschert, N.C. Sturchio, Y.R. Sun, W.D. Williams, and G.-M. Yang
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 91,1-6 (2012) DOI:10.1016/j.gca.2012.05.019

Optical Excitation and Decay Dynamics of Ytterbium Atoms Embedded in a Solid Neon Matrix Abstract ( PDF / arXiv:1106.3447)
C.-Y. Xu, S.-M. Hu, J. Singh, K. Bailey, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, T. P. O'Connor and U. Welp
Physical Review Letters 107, 093001 (2011)

Physics Synopsis Suggested ReadingAr-39 Detection at the 10-16 Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis Abstract ( PDF / arXiv:1101.2933 )
W. Jiang, W. D. Williams, K. Bailey, A.M. Davis, S.-M. Hu, Z.-T. Lu, T.P. O'Connor, R. Purtschert, N.C. Sturchio, Y.R. Sun, P. Mueller
Physical Review Letters 106, 103001 (2011) ( See accompanying Physics Synopsis )

Spectroscopic study of the cycling transition 4s[3/2]2–4p[5/2]3 at 811.8 nm in 39Ar: Hyperfine structure and isotope shift Abstract / PDF
W. Williams, Z.-T. Lu, K. Rudinger, C.-Y. Xu, R. Yokochi, and P. Mueller
Physical Review A 83, 012512 (2011)

Atom Trap Trace Analysis of Rare Noble Gas Isotopes
Zheng-Tian Lu, Peter Mueller
in: Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics 58, 174 (2010)
(Eds. E. Arimondo, P.R. Berman, C.C. Lin)

Progress Toward an EDM Measurement in 225Ra Abstract PDF
R. J. Holt, I. Ahmad, K. Bailey, B. Graner, J. P. Greene, W. Korsch, Z. T. Lu, P. Mueller, T. P. O'Connor, I. A. Sulai, and W. L. Trimble
Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Symmetries in Subatomic Physics,
Taipei, Taiwan, June 2-5, 2009; Nucl. Phys. A844, 53c-56c (2010)

Lifetime of the 7s6d 1D2 atomic state of radium Abstract / PDF
W. L. Trimble, I. A. Sulai, I. Ahmad, K. Bailey, B. Graner, J. P. Greene, R. J. Holt, W. Korsch, Z.-T. Lu,
P. Mueller, and T. P. O’Connor
Physical Review A 80, 054501 (2009)

The role of carrier gases in the production of metastable argon atoms in a rf discharge (PDF)
Kenneth Rudinger, Zheng-Tian Lu, and Peter Mueller
Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 036105 (2009)

Simple atom, extreme nucleus - Laser trapping and probing of exotic helium isotopes PDF
Li-Bang Wang, Zheng-Tian Lu, Peter Mueller
Wuli (Physics), Vol. 38, 339 (2009) (Chinese)

Neutronenhalos in neuem Licht. Kernphysik mit exotischen Isotopen Abstract
Wilfried Nörtershäuser, Peter Müller
Physik in unserer Zeit 40, 96 (2009) (German)

Suggested ReadingHyperfine Suppression of 2 3S1 - 3 3PJ Transitions in 3He Abstract / (PDF)
I.A. Sulai, Quixue Wu, M. Bishof, G.W.F. Drake, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, and R.Santra
Physical Review Letters 101, 173001 (2008)

Atom Trap, Krypton-81, and Saharan Water Preprint
Zheng-Tian Lu
Nuclear Physics News 18(2), 24 (2008)

Search for a Permanent Electric Dipole Moment in Atoms PDF
Z.-T. Lu
A write-up for National Natural Science Foundation of China (2008) (Chinese)

Suggested ReadingNuclear charge radius of 8He Abstract / (PDF / arXiv:0801.0601v1)
P. Mueller, I.A. Sulai, A.C.C. Villari, J.A. Alcantara-Nunez, R. Alves-Conde, K. Bailey, G.W.F. Drake, M. Dubois, C. Eleon, G. Gaubert, R.J. Holt, R.V.F. Janssens, N. Lecesne, Z.-T. Lu, T.P. O'Connor, M.-G. Saint-Laurent, J.-C. Thomas, L.-B. Wang
Physical Review Letters 99, 252501 (2007)

Suggested ReadingLaser-trapping of Ra-225 and Ra-226 with repumping by room temperature blackbody radiation Abstract / (PDF / physics/0701263)
J. R. Guest, N. D. Scielzo, I. Ahmad, K. Bailey, J. P. Greene, R. J. Holt, Z.-T. Lu, T. P. O'Connor, D. H. Potterveld
Physical Review Letters 98, 093001 (2007)

Thermal beam of metastable krypton atoms produced by optical excitation Abstract / (physics/0612046)
Y. Ding, S.-M. Hu, K. Bailey, A. M. Davis, R. W. Dunford, Z.-T. Lu, T. P. O'Connor, L. Young
Review of Scientific Instruments 78, 023103 (2007)

Beam of metastable krypton atoms extracted from a microwave-driven discharge Abstract
Y. Ding, K. Bailey, A.M. Davis, S.-M. Hu, Z.-T. Lu T.P. O'Connor
Review of Scientific Instruments 77, 126105 (2006)

Measurement of the lifetimes of the lowest 3P1 state of neutral Ba and Ra Abstract / PDF
N.D. Scielzo, J.R. Guest, E.C. Schulte, I. Ahmad, K. Bailey, D.L. Bowers, R.J. Holt, Z.-T. Lu, T.P. O'Connor, and D. Potterveld
Physical Review A 73, 010501(R) (2006)

Fine Structure of the 1s3p 3PJ Level in Atomic 4He: Theory and Experiment Abstract / PDF / Preprint (physics/0407114)
P. Mueller, L.-B. Wang, G. W. F. Drake, K. Bailey, Z.-T. Lu, and T. P. O'Connor
Physical Review Letters 94, 133001 (2005)

Searches for stable strangelets in ordinary matter: overview and a recent example Abstract /nucl-ex/0402015
Z.-T. Lu, R. J. Holt, P. Müller, T. P. O’Connor, J. P. Schiffer, L.-B. Wang
Nuclear Physics A 754, 361c (2005)

Atom Trap, krypton-81, and the groundwater underneath the Sahara Desert PDF
X. Du and Z.-T. Lu
Wuli (Physics), Vol. 34, 408 (2005) (Chinese)

Laser Spectroscopic Determination of the 6He Nuclear Charge Radius Abstract / PDF / nucl-ex/0408008
L.-B. Wang, P. Mueller, G. W. F. Drake, J. P. Greene, D. Henderson, R. J. Holt, R. V. F. Janssens, C. L. Jiang, Z.-T. Lu, T. P. O’Connor, R. C. Pardo, K. E. Rehm, J. P. Schiffer, X. D. Tang
Physical Review Letters 93, 142501 (2004)

An Atom Trap System for Practical 81Kr-Dating Abstract
X. Du, K. Bailey, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, T. P. O'Connor, L. Young
Review of Scientific Instruments 75, 3224 (2004)

One million year old groundwater in the Sahara revealed by krypton-81 and chlorine-36 Abstract / physics/0402092
N. C. Sturchio, X. Du, R. Purtschert, B. E. Lehmann, M. Sultan, L. J. Patterson, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, K. Bailey, T. P. O’Connor, L. Young, R. Lorenzo, B. M. Kennedy, M. van Soest, Z. El Alfy, B. El Kaliouby, Y. Dawood, and A. M. A. Abdallah
Geophysical Research Letters 31(5), L05503 (2004)

Counting individual 41Ca atoms with a Magneto-Optical Trap Abstract / PDF / physics/0310045
I. D. Moore, K. Bailey, J. Greene, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, T. P. O’Connor, Ch. Geppert, K. D. A. Wendt, L. Young
Physical Review Letters 92, 153002 (2004)

Search for anomalously heavy isotopes of helium in the Earth’s atmosphere Abstract / PDF / nucl-ex/0302025
P. Mueller, L.-B. Wang, R. J. Holt, Z.-T. Lu, T. P. O’Connor, and J. P. Schiffer
Physical Review Letters 92, 022501 (2004)

Tracing Noble Gas Radionuclides in the Environment Abstract / nucl-ex/0402013
P. Collon, W. Kutschera and Z.-T. Lu
Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science 54, 39 (2004)

Search for a low-lying 3.5-eV isomeric state in 229Th PDF
I.D. Moore, I. Ahmad, K. Bailey, D. L. Bowers, Z.-T. Lu, T. P. O’Connor, Z. Yin
Physics Division Report PHY-10990-ME-2004

A new method of measuring 81Kr and 85Kr abundances in environmental samples Abstract / physics/0311118
X. Du, R. Purtschert, K. Bailey, B. E. Lehmann, R. Lorenzo, Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, T. P. O’Connor, N.C. Sturchio, and L. Young
Geophysical Research Letters 30, 2068 (2003)

Laser spectroscopic measurement of helium isotope ratios Abstract /physics/0311121
L.-B. Wang, P. Mueller, R. Holt, Z.-T. Lu, T.P. O’Connor, Y. Sano, N.C. Sturchio
Geophysical Research Letters 30, 1592 (2003)

Laser-Based Methods for Ultrasensitive Trace-Isotope Analyses (Feature review article) Abstract
Z.-T. Lu and K.D.A. Wendt
Review of Scientific Instruments 74, 1169 (2003)

Towards measuring the charge radius of 6He and 8He Abstract
P. Mueller, L.-B. Wang, K. Bailey, G.W.F. Drake, X. Du, J. Greene, A.M. Heinz, R.J. Holt, D. Henderson, R.V. Janssens, C.-L. Jiang, C. Law, Z.-T. Lu, I.D. Moore, T.P. O'Connor, R.C. Pardo, M. Paul, T. Pennington, K.E. Rehm, J.P. Schiffer
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physical Research B204, 536 (2003)

A Beam of Metastable Krypton Atoms Extracted from an RF-Driven Discharge Abstract /Preprint (PDF)
C.Y. Chen, K. Bailey, X. Du, Y.M. Li, Z.-T. Lu, T.P. O'Connor, L. Young, G. Winkler
Review of Scientific Instruments 72, 271 (2001)

From Helium-6 to Krypton-81 PDF
Z.-T. Lu
Art and Symmetry in Experimental Physics, Festschrift for Eugene D. Commins, AIP Conference Proceedings 596 (2001)

Ultrasensitive isotope trace analyses with a magneto-optical trap Abstract
C.Y. Chen, Y.M. Li, K. Bailey, T.P. O'Connor, L. Young, Z.-T. Lu
Science 286, 1139 (1999)


Upgrades for an Improved Measurement of the Permanent Electric Dipole Moment of Radium PDF
Tenzin Rabga, PhD Thesis, Michigan State Universiy  , 2020

Atom Trap Trace Analysis: Developments & Applications PDF
Jake C. Zappala, PhD Thesis, University of Chicago, 2017

Search for a Permanent Electric Dipole Moment of Ra-225 PDF
Mukut Kalita, PhD Thesis, University of Kentucky, 2015

First EDM Measurement of Radium PDF
Richard Parker, PhD Thesis, University of Chicago, 2015

Studies of Neutral Ytterbium Atoms in a Solid Neon Matrix PDF
Chen-Yu Xu, PhD Thesis, University of Chicago, 2014

Precision Spectroscopy of Laser Trapped Helium and Radium Atoms PDF
Ibrahim Sulai, PhD Thesis, University of Chicago, 2011

Determination of the Helium-6 Nuclear Charge Radius Using High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy PDF
Li-Bang Wang, PhD Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2004

Realization of Radio-Krypton Dating with an Atom Trap PDF
Xu Du, PhD Thesis, Northwestern University, June 2003