Peter Armbruster, Gegellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany
Nuclides Galore: Spallation revisited in inverse kinematics.
We have lived with applications of nuclear fission and fusion for a long time, and the third large rearrangement reaction, spallation, is knocking at the door for applications. Spallation is foreseen: 1) in Spallation Neutron Sources (SNS), which may replace fission high flux reactors, 2) in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), as the reaction coupling the two devices, and 3) in Radioactive Isotope Beam facilities (RIB), as the source delivering radioactive isotopes. But, the data on spallation are incomplete and of poor accuracy. The understanding of the reaction remains qualitative and a quantitative description necessary for the applications is lacking. In view of this state of the field, we proposed and engaged in the last decade at GSI in a program to provide better data on isotopic cross sections and kinetic energies for some prototype spallation reactions at an energy of 1 GeV. We measured in inverse kinematics making use of the beams of heavy isotopes (238U, 208Pb and 56Fe) at 1 AGeV available at the GSI-facilities, SIS and FRS (Fragment Separator). I will describe the experiments, and the complete data sets we obtained, e.g. 1 AGeV 238U on protons produced about 1400 different identified nuclides. The physics insights, granted as a reward, will be touched.